Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
A pancreatic disorder, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus develops when glucose is present in the blood in abnormally high levels. Located behind the stomach, the pancreas is responsible for producing the hormone insulin, which metabolizes food and regulates the amount of glucose, or sugar, which is excreted in the bloodstream and used by cells as energy. When food is consumed, insulin selectively breaks food into carbohydrates, glucose, fat, or proteins to aid in furnishing the body what it needs to function optimally.
Individuals with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, also known as Type I or juvenile onset diabetes, have trouble producing enough insulin to regulate blood sugars. The result of too much glucose in the blood stream is termed, "hyperglycemia," and is deadly if left untreated. People with hyperglycemia can go into a diabetic ketoacidosis, which can progress into a coma or death. Symptoms of ketoacidosis are increased thirst, frequent urination, nausea, rapid breathing, abdominal pain, and a sugary-smelling breath. Glucose is also present in the urine and can cause urinary tract infections and vaginitis in women. Individuals may also complain of constant thirst, blurred vision, and abdominal pain.
To compensate for the lack of insulin secreted by the pancreas, people with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus require regular dosages of the hormone, either in injections or pill form, for the rest of their lives. Type I diabetics also must adhere to a strict diet, which restricts the amount of sugar consumed, and monitor glucose levels on a daily basis. A prescribed program of diet, exercise, and medication helps to prolong the quality of life for diabetics. Low-impact and non-weight bearing exercises are kinder to the sensitive nerve endings. Water aerobics and swimming help ease pain in the knees, feet, and hips; and cycling on a stationery bicycle promotes healthy circulation. Individuals on an exercise plan should try to get at least 30 minutes of moderate activity per day to help control glucose levels and maintain a healthy weight.
For people with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, following a low-fat meal plan with good carbohydrates helps blood sugars stabilize. Nutritionists say that carbohydrates are metabolized more slowly than sweets, are more filling, and provide more vitamins and minerals essential to building cells. Whole grains, such as brown rice, bulgar wheat, and oats; beans, sweet potatoes, corn, carrots, and leafy greens are wise choices. Type I diabetics should avoid high-calorie, empty carbohydrates, alcohol, soft drinks, or fruit juices, which can send glucose levels through the roof and cause ketoacidosis. Most physicians will prescribe a diet plan, along with medication and insulin dosages to prevent high or low sugar levels in the blood. Eating fresh, steamed or raw vegetables; fresh citrus fruits; and limited amounts of lean meat, fish and poultry should provide sufficient nutrition and add variety to a diet plan. To avoid fluctuations in glucose levels, individuals may carry a piece of candy or fruit for a quick pick-me-up. "Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits"..."Who satisfieth thy mouth with good things; so that thy youth is renewed like the eagles" (Psalm 103:2 and 5).
When blood sugar levels spike, Type I and II patients are at a constant threat of ketoacidosis or diabetic coma; and are also susceptible to kidney diseases and high blood pressure. Diabetics may also experience peripheral neuropathy, or nerve pain and a loss of sensation. People with non-insulin or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus must exercise good hygiene and care of the feet and legs. The inability to feel pain, especially in the feet, can cause people to have wounds and sores that are left untreated and develop gangrene. Amputations are sometimes the only recourse to save the feet and limbs of patients with debilitating wounds. Fortunately, in cases where insulin dependent diabetes mellitus causes wounds not to heal normally, there is medical intervention. Hyperbaric wound treatments have proven successful for patients with non-healing wounds. Treatments consist of wound debridement, which surgically removes dead and rotten flesh, alternating with a series of sessions spent in a hyperbaric chamber. Treatments enable the flesh to be miraculously healed and regenerated. Some patients experience full recovery and develop new skin and healthy tissue!
Type I and II diabetes is also a leading cause of end stage renal disease. People who suffer from high blood pressure and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus are highly susceptible to kidney failure. The kidneys are twin organs which flank either side of the spine in the back, just above the waistline. These hardworking organs filter toxins from the blood and process urine. High glucose levels in the blood can attribute to infections in the kidneys, bladder and urinary tract. Doctors can usually detect high levels of glucose by taking urine samples. As the kidneys become infected and diseased, their ability to filter toxins is diminished; and patients may have to go on dialysis to aid in ridding the body of poisons. In dialysis, patients' blood is drained from the body with specialized tubing, cleansed and returned back into the body. The process takes about one hour; however it must be repeated on an average of two to three times per week. Dialysis patients usually have a port inserted into an arm, leg or stomach to facilitate draining blood. Prescribed diets also regulate fluid, salt, and food intake to aid in the process of removing toxins.
In the final analysis, a diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence. Individuals who are conscientious about taking care of themselves and following the doctor's orders can avoid kidney failure and dialysis. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus requires lifelong care. People who suffer from the disorder must develop a lifestyle which promotes healthy eating and exercising, along with stress, anxiety, and weight management. Through adhering to prescribed programs and staying on medication, individuals should be able to live productive lives, manage pain, and avoid adverse consequences of out-of-control blood sugars.
Causes Of Diabetes MellitusCauses of diabetes mellitus can only be discovered when the individual has a clear understanding of the condition. Diabetes is a metabolism disorder. The body's transport of sugar into cells for energy (glucose) is blocked by a lack of a hormone called insulin. Insulin must be present to allow the sugar to get into the cells. When sugar cannot get into the cells, glucose builds up in the blood stream instead of in the cells. This makes the cells starved for energy, and over time can result in high blood glucose levels which can endanger the eyes, kidneys, nerves and even the heart. Hereditary causes for this disease are common for at-risk individual races such as African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Causes of diabetes mellitus include the high risk factor of obesity and improper diet. In our modern society with the addition of preservatives and additives, the body is unable to properly metabolize many foods. This causes problems, and can also be one of the leading causes of diabetes. As always, the best advice for someone suffering with any ailment is to pray to God. He will hear the cry of His children. "Though I walk in the midst of trouble, thou shalt revive me: thou shall stretch forth thine hand against the wrath of mine enemies, and thy right hand shall save me." (Psalm 138:7)
A lack of physical fitness can often lead to this condition. The sedentary lifestyle of people today contributes to the body's inability to process and burn calories for energy the way it should. There are no exact or specific causes of diabetes mellitus. They can range by multiple risk factors of age, diet and physical inactivity. These things tend to be the leading risk factors and subsequent causes of diabetes for most people diagnosed after childhood. The childhood variety of this disease is usually hereditary or due to another rare risk factor that is usually associated with a simultaneous disease or disorder. Sometimes, this disease can result from a poor diet, but typically, a child's system can handle the dietary imperfections unless there is something else already plaguing them. Whenever symptoms begin, such as lack of energy, or unexplained weight gain, a person should immediately have their blood glucose levels tested.
The different varieties of diabetes can affect the body in different ways. Type two diabetes is the most common form. This type occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or the body's cells ignore the insulin. Another condition that can be created by causes of diabetes is hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. A way to help control the insulin levels from causes of diabetes mellitus includes accurate meal planning and an exercise routine that is consistently followed. This is not a cure, but can help alleviate some of the symptoms and keep the disorder from becoming more severe. There are also medications that can be given to diabetic patients. These medications can be taken to help stimulate beta cells to release more insulin. Medications should either be taken before meals or at the same time as meals, depending on what the physician prescribes.
Diabetes is largely a self-managed disorder. Patients have access to test strips for testing glucose levels, meters, and insulin. Most insurance plans will cover the supplies and equipment necessary to maintain a balanced insulin level in a patient. If someone is diagnosed with the disorder, regardless of the causes of diabetes, and they don't have insurance; they will find it near impossible to gain it. Most insurance companies will consider a diabetic patient high risk, and either charge an extraordinary amount in premiums, or deny the patient altogether. For those who are considered lower income, the government provides Medicare and Medicaid to cover the medical expenses associated with maintaining healthy insulin levels in diabetic patients without insurance. Another insurance fact is that employer sponsored health coverage is legally bound to ensure an employee, regardless of causes of diabetes mellitus or any other pre-existing condition. Employers, however, do have rights to not offer employment based on an unfavorable medical exam.
Contrary to popular belief, eating sweets and other candies will not cause this disease. However, eating sweets and candies that, in turn, result in obesity puts anyone at a higher risk and therefore is considered one of many causes of diabetes. Certain medications, such as steroids are also known to lead to this disease in people. Steroids should only be given in limited dosages under doctors prescribed care. Steroids can be a dangerous medication and can cause many other disorders and diseases if not taken cautiously. People that have diabetes can certainly live a normal life, but they must constantly be aware of their glucose levels on a daily basis. While some cases are more severe, requiring daily injections, others are mild, and only require careful attention to dietary guidelines.